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Tortricid Leafroller Moths

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
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Summary

The Tortricidae are a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths or leafroller moths, in the order Lepidoptera. This large family has over 11,000 species described, and is the sole member of the superfamily Tortricoidea, although the genus Heliocosma is sometimes placed within this superfamily. Many of these are economically important pests. Olethreutidae is a junior synonym. The typical resting posture is with the wings folded back, producing a rather rounded profile. Notable tortricids include the codling moth and the spruce budworm, which are among the most well-studied of all insects because of their economic impact.

Tortricid Leafroller Moths

Tortricidae

Scientific classification

kingdom: Animalia
phylum: Arthropoda
class: Insecta
order: Lepidoptera

Species

Olethreutes bipartitana

Divided Olethreutes Moth

Olethreutes bipartitana

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Olethreutes fasciatana

Banded Olethreutes Moth

Olethreutes fasciatana

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Syricoris lacunana

Common Marble

Syricoris lacunana

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Apotomis albeolana

Apotomis albeolana

Apotomis albeolana

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Bactra verutana

Javelin Moth

Bactra verutana

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Endothenia hebesana

Verbena Bud Moth

Endothenia hebesana

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Hedya separatana

Pink-washed Leafroller Moth

Hedya separatana

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Olethreutes inornatana

Inornate Olethreutes Moth

Olethreutes inornatana

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Zomaria interruptolineana

Broken-lined Zomaria Moth

Zomaria interruptolineana

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Hedya nubiferana

Green Budworm Moth

Hedya nubiferana

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Olethreutes quadrifidum

Olethreutes quadrifidum

Olethreutes quadrifidum

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Olethreutes ferriferana

Hydrangea Leaftier Moth

Olethreutes ferriferana

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Paralobesia viteana

Grape Berry Moth

Paralobesia viteana

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Olethreutes arcuella

Arched Marble

Olethreutes arcuella

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Episimus argutana

Sumac Leaftier Moth

Episimus argutana

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Description

Tortricid moths are generally small, with a wingspan of 3 cm or less. Many species are drab and have mottled and marbled brown colors, but some diurnal species are brightly colored and mimic other moths of the families Geometridae and Pyralidae.

Life cycle and behavior

Tortricid eggs are often flattened and scale-like. Larvae in the subfamilies Chlidanotinae and Olethreutinae usually feed by boring into stems, roots, buds, or seeds. Larvae in the subfamily Tortricinae, however, feed externally and construct leaf rolls. Larvae in the subfamily Tortricinae tend to be more polyphagous than those in Chlidanotinae and Olethreutinae. Tortricinae also possess an anal fork for flicking excrement away from their shelters.

Some common tortricids

The tortricids include many economically important pests, including: See also Mexican jumping bean moth (Cydia saltitans) - Summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana) - Fruit tree tortrix moth (Archips podana) - Rose leaf roller (Archips rosana) - Argyrotaenia ljungiana, a pest on vines, maize, and fruit trees - Peach moth (Cydia molesta) - Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) - Plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana) - Pea moth (Cydia nigricana) - Chestnut and acorn moth (Cydia splendana) - Light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) - Hemp borer (Grapholita delineana) - Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) - Cherry fruitworm (Grapholita packardi) - European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) - Barred fruit tree tortrix moth (Pandemis cerasana) - Grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana) - Long-palped tortrix (vine leaf roller) (Sparganothis pilleriana) - Bud moth (Spilonota ocellana) - False codling moth (Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta) - Spruce budworm (Genus Choristoneura)

A typical tortricid – the codling moth

The Tortricidae are considered to be the single most important family of insects that feed on apples, both economically and in diversity of feeding found on fruit, buds, leaves, and shoots. In New York, no fewer than seventeen species of Tortricidae have gained pest status in regards to apple production. The codling moth Cydia pomonella causes worm-holes in apples. It has been accidentally spread from its original range in Europe and is now found in North and South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, wherever apples are grown. Control has required the use of the harshest available insecticides – historically lead arsenate and DDT were used for control. These chemicals brought considerable environmental dangers, and in any case the insect gradually developed resistance to them. Currently, organophosphate sprays are favored and are timed carefully to catch the hatching larvae before they can bore into the fruit.

Further reading

- Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders, edited by Christopher O'Toole, ISBN: 1-55297-612-2, 2002